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Regional examples of WFS PDF Print E-mail
Written by Angela Tan, Taiwan   
Friday, 30 September 2011 19:54

 

Regional examples


United Kingdom

Social welfare is administered in three ways in United Kingdom, the National Health Service, the Social Services program, and the Pensions Service program all play a part in the providing social welfare.

The three branches of welfare

Welfare in Great Britain also consists of a Social Security program that is admission Service, and also it provides financial aid to individuals and families that qualify. It also promotes what it calls an "equality scheme".

The Movement for Reform

The most recent act on welfare reform in Great Britain is the Welfare Act of 2007. The act provides for "an employment and support allowance, a contributory allowance, [and] an income-based allowance."


France

The welfare system in France is based upon a system of social insurance, family allowances, and pensions. A social security program is maintained where workers and employers pay into a fund that the worker can draw from when they become unable to continue working. Contributions are earnings based and both groups, employers and workers, are involved in maintaining the situation. The program's budget is not actually part of the official state budget of France. However, the French government is still crucial in that it regulates the program. Its specific authority in the area is still unclear.

Beginning in the mid-1970s, a deficit in the program began to appear. The deficit saw peaks at 27.75% of the social insurance budget in 1992. This led to a major push by the government to cut back spending in the welfare program. By the end of the 1990s the deficit had been almost completely eradicated. The often large deficits that the program has endured has led to a tremendous amount of opposition to the program as it stands.

 

Germany

The welfare state has a long tradition in Germany dating back to the industrial revolution. Due to the pressure of the workers' movement in the late 19th century, Reichskanzler Otto von Bismarck introduced the first rudimentary state social insurance scheme. Today, the social protection of all its citizens is considered a central pillar of German national policy. 27.6 percent of Germany's GDP is channeled into an all-embracing system of health, pension, accident, longterm care and unemployment insurance, compared to 16.2 percent in the US. In addition, there are tax-financed services such as child benefits (Kindergeld, beginning at 184 per month for the first and second children, €190 for the third and €215 for each child thereafter, until they attain 25 years or receive their first professional qualification),[12] and basic provisions for those unable to work or anyone with an income below the poverty line.[13]

Since 2005, reception of full unemployment pay (60-67% of the previous net salary) has been restricted to 12 months in general and 18 months for those over 55. This is now followed by (usually much lower) Arbeitslosengeld II (ALG II) or Sozialhilfe, which is independent of previous employment.

Under ALG II, a single person receives €364 per month plus the cost of 'adequate' housing, a pension scheme and health insurance. ALG II can also be paid partially to supplement a low work income.

 

Canada

Canada has a welfare state in the European tradition; however, it is not referred to as "welfare", but rather as "social programs". In Canada, "welfare" usually refers specifically to direct payments to poor individuals (as in the American usage) and not to healthcare and education spending (as in the European usage).

The Canadian social safety net covers a broad spectrum of programs, and because Canada is a federation, many are run by the provinces. Canada has a wide range of government transfer payments to individuals, which totaled $145 billion in 2006. Only social programs that direct funds to individuals are included in that cost; programs such as medicare and public education are additional costs.

Generally speaking, before the Great Depression, most social services were provided by religious charities and other private groups. Changing government policy between the 1930s and 1960s saw the emergence of a welfare state, similar to many Western European countries. Most programs from that era are still in use, although many were scaled back during the 1990s as government priorities shifted towards reducingdebt and deficit.

Italy

The Italian welfare state's foundations were laid along the lines of the corporatist-conservative model, or of its Mediterranean variant. Later, in the 1960s and 1970s, increases in public spending and a major focus on universality brought it on the same path as social-democraticsystems. These policies proved to be financially unsustainable, as public debt and inflation grew alarmingly, preventing the welfare state from developing completely. In the 1990s, efforts moving towards decentralization and privatization were used in an attempt to cope with European pressures for economic stability, which were finally reached by 2001.

Sweden

In Sweden Welfare (=Välfärd) means in a broad sense standard of life. Welfare is everything that contributes to a good = well-fare (good journey) in life. It is also a systematic infrastructure to protect a good life, from a minimum up to (today) just about average (like 'one size fits all' or 'black T-ford').

Sweden has been categorised by some observers[who?] as a middle way between a capitalist economy and a socialist economy.[citation needed] Supporters of this system assert that Sweden has found a way of achieving high levels of social equality, without stifling entrepreneurialism. The perspective has been questioned by supporters of economic liberalization in Sweden.

Government pension payments are financed through an 18.5% pension tax on all taxed incomes in the country, which comes partly from atax category called a public pension fee (7% on gross income), and 30% of a tax category called employer fees on salaries (which is 33% on a netted income). Since January 2001 the 18.5% is divided in two parts: 16% goes to current payments, and 2.5% goes into individual retirement accounts, which were introduced in 2001. Money saved and invested in government funds, and IRAs for future pension costs, are roughly 5 times annual government pension expenses (725/150).

Japan

In Japan, the Oita district ruled on October 18, 2010, that foreigners with permanent residency have no rights to welfare benefits

 

Last Updated on Thursday, 03 November 2011 17:53
 
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