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TMS in Nepal PDF Print E-mail
Written by Cecilia Chee, Singapore   
Tuesday, 27 September 2011 14:48





Nepalese transport management is affected by existing topographical condition of the country. Due to this only means of transport used in the country are road transport and air transport. In this paper only road transport is discussed. During the Tenth Plan period, the vehicle transport management 
guideline was implemented. In the context of institutional strengthening of the transport system, construction of a building for the department of Transport Management has been completed.

Transport Management Plan and Policy of Government (Long Term Vision)

(Interim Plan (2007/08-2009/10))


The long term vision is to make the transport system safe, affordable, organized, non-polluting and service oriented, through qualitative increase in vehicle and transport services, thereby making a contribution towards the overall development and prosperity of the country.




• To develop the transport system so as to make it less expensive, safe, non-polluting, equipped with    

  facilities, competitive and self-dependent.

• To make the transport sector efficient, transparent, service oriented and effective.


• Private sector participation will be increased in legal, institutional and policy-related improvement  

  and transport management.

• Modern technologies will be used for driving license, number plate and vehicular emission.

• Capacity of concerned agencies and human resources will be enhanced.

• Implementation of third-party insurance provision will be made effective.



Policy and Working Policies

• Through an improvement in policy, legal, institutional system and technology, highways will be made safe, reliable, effective and modern.

• Institutional improvement will be carried out for effective development and management of the transport sector; and by establishing an autonomous National Transport Board, partnership and        co-operation with private sector will be strengthened. 

• By operating vehicles in a competitive environment, certainly, cost effectiveness and economic capability will be achieved in transport service, and the syndicate system will be abolished.

• Priority will be given to public transportation system.

• By involving the private sector in transport, making it competitive, attractive and responsible, the

transport system will be strengthened. In addition, polluting vehicles will be phased out.

• Embossed number plate will be installed in vehicles and smart card will replace the existing driving


• By computerizing the archive system related to transport management, prompt and reliable service will be provided. National network of vehicle and transport service will be built.

• For pollution control, necessary mechanism will be established in urban areas including the

Kathmandu Valley, and public awareness on this issue will be enhanced.

• Effective co-ordination will be established among the concerned agencies involved in transport management.

• Office of Transport Management will be constructed and renovated, and will be made resourceful.

• By carrying a study on road accidents, possible causes and the reasons of accidents will be

identified, and necessary precautions will be taken.

• Travel cost in vehicles will be subsidized for senior citizens and persons with disability on the basis

of identity cards.Major Programs

• Legal and institutional improvement program.

• Modernization of number plate and driving license.

• Purchase of equipments to check number plates and the driving license system.

• Monitoring system strengthening program.

• Building construction, and expansion and strengthening of Transport Management Offices.

• Detail study, research and formulation of master plan for the strengthening of the transport sector.

• Trainings to women and persons with disability on driving and transport service.

• Refresher training to transport workers.

• Sticker system to differentiate vehicles driven by persons with disability.

• Public awareness program on road accidents. Expected Outcomes

• Road accidents will decrease due to improvement in transport administration.

• Number plates and driving license will be of quality standard, safe and at par with the international


• Vehicular pollution will decrease.Expected ………

• On site monitoring system will be established for vehicular inspection.

• Competitive and economical transport system will be developed.

• Detailed project report for the strengthening of the transport sector will be prepared.Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation


Upon implementation of the above programs, services will be provided through a computerized system, which would bring effectiveness in implementation. Through decentralization

of transport management, concerned human resources will be trained. An effective mechanism will be built to establish co-ordination among concerned agencies related to transport management. Through regular monitoring and evaluation, emerging problems will be solved. 30Public Transportation Planning, Multi-modal integration and Transport Demand Management



Features and Challenges

• Primarily, private sector has been providing public transportation facilities

• All the airlines except one are operating privately.

• Means of public transport are: buses, minibuses, microbuses, tempos

(three wheelers) and taxis (cars). Public Transportation

• Government provides permission to the public transport providers.

• Government is trying to make permission system more transparent and efficient.

• In remote areas, even in certain districts, there is no motor road network. People are demanding

for the construction of motor roads in those areas.

• In area having motor roads, maintenance of roads has become a challenge. In certain roads

authorities have started to raise funds from the vehicles for using particular roads.

• Government is planning to extend networks of motor-able roads to each and every districts and also to improve the quality of roads and proper maintenance.

• Replacement of old vehicles also is a challenge. As the age of vehicles has not been declared, pollution created due to the emission of vehicle has also become a challenge for Nepal.


• Government in trying to implement vehicle replacement program also.

• Scientific and appropriate system for determining fares of public vehicles has become another challenge for the country.

• There is 51 KM railway transport connecting Janakpur to Jayanagar(India). Out of this only 29 KM is in operation. Similarly, dry ports of Birgunj and Bhairahawa are connected directly to the Calcutta

port with broad guage railway. Initiatives taken to make transport system environmentally sustainable

• There is provision of compulsory environmental impact assessment for the construction of new roads and highways.

• Introduction of compulsory pollution testing to vehicles.

• Conversion of  diesel engines three wheelers into battery operating system four wheelers (esp. micro buses) into gas (LPG)systemRegistration of Vehicles According to 




Fiscal Year 2007/08(Mid July)

Category of Vehicle Number

Bus 17,842

Mini-bus 6,902

Crane/dozer/truck 36,794

Car/jeep/van 93,266

Pick up  3,419

Micro-bus  1,935

Tempo (three wheeler)  7,353

Motor cycle 4,89,686

Tractor   40,104

Others      5,741

Total 7,03,044

Source: Department of Transport Management Distribution of license

Fiscal Year 2007/08 (Mid July)

Category of Vehicle Number

Distributed by police up to 2002/03 7,21,246

Fiscal year 2003/04 18,125

Fiscal year 2004/05 62,920

Fiscal year 2005/06 87,778

Fiscal year 2006/07  1,35,856

Fiscal year 2007/08  2,14,709

Total 12,40,634

Source: Department of Transport Management Non motorized transport

• Non motorized transport varies according to the topography of the


• In southern part and other plain areas there are bicycle, rickshaw, horse driven carts as well as bullock carts. 

• In hilly areas horses, mules and donkeys are used for transport of both goods and human beings. Non motorized…

• In high mountain regions especially goats and yaks are used for transport.

• Porters are also used for carrying goods.

• There is no alternative cheap means of transport to walking in many parts of the country.Land use measures of pollution reduction in the transport sector

• Road construction - environment impact analysis is a must.

• Survey phase - Attention is given to choose the route that makes least destruction of forest and landscape and least cost required to make bridges and other necessary arrangements.



Road safety measures & public

Road safety measures & public health issues related to transportation

• Route permission for vehicles is based on the condition of vehicle.

• There are criteria for route permission. The criteria permits limited number of vehicles to

run in specific roads

• Traffic law including traffic

• Provision of Insurance of vehicles & travelers

• Compulsory provision of ambulances

• Speed limit

• Punishment system

• Accident control measures

• Vehicle pollution testProblems, Challenges and Opportunities




• Lack of expansion of road in proportion to the increase in number of vehicles.

• Slow progress in the vehicular management system.

• Rising number of accidents.

• Syndicate system among private entrepreneurs.

• Rising pollution rate.Challenges

• To Update the Vehicle and Transport Management Act and Regulation.

• To manage the complete record of transport and vehicles, effectively.

• To modernize transport management by using new technology, number plates and driving license.

• Availability of financial and human resources.

• To make transport business competitive and service-oriented.

• Co-ordination among stakeholders.

• Old vehicles still in operation

• Minimum required condition of vehicle not properly followed

• Insurance policy

• Difficulty of treatment in case of accidents

• To expand the road network all over the country



• Increase in revenue.

• Emerging private sector investment. Institutional Framework



Ministry of Labour and Transport

Management (MOLTM) is the apex government body to formulate transportation policy and programs in the country. Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology (MOEST) is the apex

body to formulate policies related to environment and to provide guidelines and set standards for pollution control including emissions from vehicles. The Department of Transport Management

and 13 Transport Management Offices are working under MOLTM in different parts of country for implementing transportation policies, programs and projects.


Last Updated on Tuesday, 27 September 2011 15:15
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